The Wealth of Networks

How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom

Yochai Benkler

Yale University Press
New Haven and London

Copyright 2006 by Yochai Benkler.

This online version is available under a Creative Commons Noncommercial Sharealike license - see - and has been reformatted and designated as recommended reading for the NGO Committee on Education of the Conference Of Non-Governmental Organizations in Consultative Relationship with the United Nations in conjunction with the Committee's commitment to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, the International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-violence for the Children of the World, the Millennium Development Goals and related international agreements, conventions and treaties.

For Deb, Noam, and Ari

"Human nature is not a machine to be built after a model, and set to do exactly the work prescribed for it, but a tree, which requires to grow and develop itself on all sides, according to the tendency of the inward forces which make it a living thing."

"Such are the differences among human beings in their sources of pleasure, their susceptibilities of pain, and the operation on them of different physical and moral agencies, that unless there is a corresponding diversity in their modes of life, they neither obtain their fair share of happiness, nor grow up to the mental, moral, and aesthetic stature of which their nature is capable."

John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (1859)